Apostat (Littérature Française) (French Edition)

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📚Quiz français : Les courants littéraires - bac de français 2019

Edward Pocock of the same year as the entry on Renaudot. It is highly probable, that death prevented Dr.

Pocock from giving any assistance to Renaudot in these designs; but I am sorry to say, that the treatment that learned person has given to the memory of our author has not been consistent with the expressions of respect for him, with which this letter abounds. The problem with Renaudot now became that he seemed to have been a model fanatic Catholic, dismissing protestant authors out of sheer bigotry regardless of their results, and that this was now used by Chalmers to explain why Renaudot had voted against Bayle: not for any scholarly reason but for blind and most probably misguided faith only.

At least theoretically. For obviously at least in the world of dictionaries this episode — although it was connected to famous persons, writings, and contained a juicy religious element — only spread in English-language ones, and only for a while, until the middle of the 19 th century as I have been able to establish so far. In French-language dictionaries on the other hand, if the affair was reported, it was reported closely matching Niceron, and thus neutralized. But most of the time it was just left out altogether. This might have been due to the complex entanglement of religion, language, and national sentiments at play here; but this is something I have to have a closer look at still.

Nichols , pp. Containing a faithful account of the lives, actions, and characters, of the most eminent persons of all ages and all countries; also the revolutions of states, and the successions of sovereign princes, ancient and modern. The Live of the rev.

Edward Pocock, in: Alexander Chalmers ed. Edward Pocock, the celebrated orientalist, by Dr.

Full text of "Dictionnaire français-kabyle"

Twells; of Dr. Zachary Pearce, bishop of Rochester, and of Dr. Thomas Newton, biship of Bristol, by themselves; and of the Rev. Philip Skelton, by Mr. Burdy, vol. Two weeks ago I announced here that I would devote a bit more attention to the interplay between the national provenance of biographical dictionaries and their content matter in the 19 th century.

I do have to start this post with an excuse because I could do only half this task. I only did the early 19 th century for starters 52 years to be exact, , and this already got me behind schedule again. But at least some things have become visible in paying closer attention to biographical dictionaries from this half-century. The first, and hardly surprising, observation to be made is that the content matter, the biographical information as presented within these works, is fairly stable.

At least concerning my protagonists these entries are not the fruit of original research but are copied, sometimes verbatim, from 18 th century dictionaries and encyclopaedias. Given that these works were aimed at a wider public, this was a completely rational and economic way to proceed. In most cases this means that the size of a particular dictionary was not so much determined by the length of the individual entries but by their number.

Only in very condensed works, those which only featured one or two volumes, a biography would be heavily pruned. Much more often it was the selection of biographies, and not the selection of passages within biographies, which made the difference between a four- and a twenty-volume dictionary. That in turn means that any conscious framing of the complete edition would again rest on the selection of the biographies to be included rather than on rewriting the biographical materials themselves.

There are exceptions from this general rule, of course. The next thing that struck me was that so many of these dictionaries were of British origin. Of the 21 dictionaries surveyed for this post, 12 were written in English, compared to four in French, three in Dutch, one in German and one in Latin. This might well just be a bias in the sample that was caused by me following the references in those dictionaries and publications I had already collected for the last post, but it may also just point to the fact that in the early 19 th century Great Britain presumably would have had more people willing and able to buy such a book, or series of books, than continental Europe which first had to cope with the impact of the Napoleonic Wars and then with its lagging behind in industrializing.

But although the selections of biographies presented by dictionaries of the sample so far looked at here do not seem to have been much impacted by this provenance. At least Thomas Gale does not pop up with a frequency which seems over-exaggerated in proportion to half the dictionaries being English ones. So what does this tell me? First of all that there seem to have been long-time cycles on the book market, and what is captured by this graphic would be the cycle between roughly and , with a peak in the ies.

The second half of the century would bring the national biographical dictionaries undertaken as state projects, and show a somewhat similar pattern reaching its apogee around the ies. In the 18 th century there are quite similar patterns, at least judging from my current state of research. And, second, that national framings became more closely entangled with the framings — and selections thus prompted — of the content matter these dictionaries presented to their readers. A case in point is Johannes Braun, who only belatedly begins to make an appearance in these dictionaries at all, compared to the other three.

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Remembering Claude Pichois

This might well be at last partly due to problems in filing him adequately within a national reference system: Born in Kaiserslautern in , he fled from the city with his mother in during the Thirty Years War, became preacher of the French Reformed Church in Nijmegen for quite a while, and finally got the post of professor of Theology and Hebrew at Groningen University in ; he wrote in French and Latin.

Was he now to be considered German, French, or Dutch? A bit of everything, or nothing at all? This was due to the fact that Delvenne, although he nowhere stated it explicitly, only acknowledged persons in his dictionary who had been born on soil which now was part of the Kingdom of the Netherlands. And this in turn was due to his explicit intention, as stated in his preface, to instill a love for this their fatherland into Belgians, particularly young students, by presenting them examples from their glorious past.

This time the delay in posting this text is only partially my fault. I can blame some of it on the B iographisch portaal van Nederland , from which I wanted to draw some information but which just was not available for the last days. So I decided to do without these data for a first go, which I think will also do. I do have got enough material to present some first conclusions.

Or, as the headline for this paragraph should perhaps better have been, when did knowledge go national? Framing knowledge in national terms may serve to portion a bit of it to make it manageable, to get it between the covers of a book — or several books of a series, as was much more frequently the case — more easily. But when did such a framing start to impact how knowledge was ordered? This was the study of the history of knowledge, most often with an arts and humanities focus, but not restricted to it.

It was laid down in dictionaries and encyclopaedias, and it was usually biographical in nature, because heavily person-centred. Over time, this genre thinned out and became more and more specialized, while many of its more general contents were merged into the national biographical dictionaries which became popular in the 19 th century.

Booky Mary

During these processes, somewhen between the 18 th and the 19 th century national categories became the dominant frames for laying out knowledge stores in this field, for both the specialized and the generalized forms of it. And this, at least this is my hypothesis for these materials, impacted if and how dead scholars where referenced, and so the references to my protagonists also.

But to return to the question from the preceeding paragraph: When did this happen? For those of these works written in German, the first half of the 18 th century still was free from being dominated by the national gaze. This is interesting in so far as it was no longer completely usual.

Mairie de France : La région de l' Alsace

For Niceron did reference non-French scholars, as for instance Reland. Such weightings and omissions — or selections — one might also meet with elsewhere, and according to different criteria. So although these were just a few spotlights on the situation in the first half of the 18 th century, it seems that a national paradigm in constructing the history of learning was one way to do it but not the predominant.

The question then must be, when did this change, and to which effect? In respect to my protagonists, I am currently drawing up a list of such encyclopaedic references to them, and although it is not complete yet, the overall statistics you see to the left provide an indication when and how knowledge — at least of these people — became nationally framed. Afirst phase of interest in my protagonists which lasted until the s — which was, as also indicated by other materials, the phase after which when they entered a state of being structurally forgotten. Then the references become sparse, until a renewed phase of interest begins which covers the s to s, and which is different for each of them.

And this is, I would like to argue, due to the national framework having now become the predominant pattern of reference to scholars. Yet the British focus was clear. References to Reland are still being made in the s, which is due to him also being referenced in the German dictionary of national biography, the Allgemeine Deutsche Biographie Berlin, , as I already pointed out in an earlier blogpost. What does this say about the connections made between scholarship and nation in 19 th century France if it does say anything about it?

In one of the earlier posts on this blog I said something about Louis-Charles Solvet and his successful strategies of reference to Adrien Reland.


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